Accessibility Article: Screen Reader User Survey #7 Results, WebAIM Projects

*Note: This is a long read, 62 pages at 14Pt Font.

Screen Reader User Survey #7 Results

Read it online at:

https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey7/

 

article

WebAIM Projects

> Screen Reader User Survey #7 Results

 

navigation region

Article Contents

list of 19 items

  1. Introduction
  2. Demographics

list of 6 items nesting level 1

  • Region
  • Disability Reported
  • Disability Types
  • Screen Reader Proficiency
  • Internet Proficiency
  • Screen reader usage

list end nesting level 1

  1. Primary Screen Reader
  2. Screen Readers Commonly Used
  3. Free/Low-cost Screen Readers
  4. Screen Reader Updates
  5. Browsers
  6. Screen Reader / Browser Combinations
  7. Operating System
  8. Braille Output
  9. Mobile Screen Readers

list of 5 items nesting level 1

  • Mobile Screen Reader Usage
  • Mobile Platforms
  • Mobile Screen Readers Used
  • Mobile vs. Desktop/Laptop Usage
  • Mobile Keyboard Usage

list end nesting level 1

  1. Web Accessibility Progress
  2. Impacts on Accessibility
  3. Social Media Accessibility
  4. Landmarks/Regions
  5. Finding Information
  6. Heading Structures
  7. “Skip” Links
  8. Problematic Items

list end

navigation region end

 

Introduction

 

In October 2017, WebAIM surveyed preferences of screen reader users. We received 1792 valid responses. This was a follow-up to 6 previous surveys that

were conducted between January 2009 and July 2015 (see

Related Resources).

 

A few disclaimers and notices:

 

list of 4 items

  • Totals may not equal 100% due to rounding.
  • Total responses (n) for each question may not equal 1792 due to respondents not answering that particular question.
  • The sample was not controlled and may not represent all screen reader users.
  • We hope to conduct additional surveys of this nature again in the future. If you have recommendations or questions you would like us to ask, please

contact us.

list end

 

Demographics

Region

North AmericaEurope/UKAsiaAustralia and OceaniaAfrica/Middle EastSouth AmericaCentral America andCaribbean23%60%

 

table with 3 columns and 8 rows

Region

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

North America

991

60.0%

Europe/UK

380

23.0%

Asia

141

8.5%

Australia and Oceania

61

3.7%

Africa/Middle East

39

2.4%

South America

35

2.1%

Central America and Caribbean

5

0.3%

table end

 

Caribbean

 

table with 3 columns and 8 rows

Respondent Region

Region

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

North America

991

60.0%

Europe/UK

380

23.0%

Asia

141

8.5%

Australia and Oceania

61

3.7%

Africa/Middle East

39

2.4%

South America

35

2.1%

Central America and Caribbean

5

0.3%

table end

 

This survey had more respondents outside North America than previous surveys, thus providing better representation of the global screen reader user audience.

 

Disability Reported

YesNo10.8%89.2%

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

1,585

89.2%

No

192

10.9%

table end

 

No

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Do you use a screen reader due to a disability?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

1,585

89.2%

No

192

10.9%

table end

 

In general, we’ve found survey responses to be very similar between respondents with and without disabilities. Any notable differences are detailed below

to help us determine differences in practices or perceptions between the disability and the developer communities.

 

Disability Types

Disability Types (% of respondents)BlindnessLow Vision/Visually-ImpairedCognitiveDeafness/Hard-of-HearingMotorOther0%25%50%75%100%

 

table with 2 columns and 7 rows

Response

% of Respondents

Blindness

75.8

Low Vision/Visually-Impaired

20.4

Cognitive

2.2

Deafness/Hard-of-Hearing

5

Motor

1.8

Other

2.3

table end

 

Disability Types (% of respondents)

 

table with 3 columns and 7 rows

Which of the following disabilities do you have?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Blindness

1,358

75.8%

Low Vision/Visually-Impaired

366

20.4%

Cognitive

39

2.2%

Deafness/Hard-of-Hearing

90

5.0%

Motor

33

1.8%

Other

41

2.3%

table end

 

239 respondents (13.3%) reported multiple disabilities. 70 respondents (3.9%) reported being both deaf and blind.

 

The number of respondents with low vision was notably lower than in 2015. This corresponds with decreased usage of ZoomText among respondents.

 

Screen Reader Proficiency

AdvancedIntermediateBeginner6%34.6%59.5%

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Advanced

1,039

59.5%

Intermediate

604

34.6%

Beginner

104

6.0%

table end

 

Beginner

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Please rate your screen reader proficiency

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Advanced

1,039

59.5%

Intermediate

604

34.6%

Beginner

104

6.0%

table end

 

Those who use screen readers due to a disability report themselves as more proficient with screen readers—64.2% of those with disabilities considered their

proficiency to be “Advanced” compared to only 19.8% of those without disabilities.

 

Internet Proficiency

AdvancedIntermediateBeginner25.3%72.9%

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Advanced

1,278

72.9%

Intermediate

444

25.3%

Beginner

30

1.7%

table end

 

Beginner

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Please rate your proficiency using the Internet

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Advanced

1,278

72.9%

Intermediate

444

25.3%

Beginner

30

1.7%

table end

 

Reported proficiency on this survey was notably higher than all previous surveys, perhaps suggesting that screen reader users are becoming more accustomed

to using the internet. Those without disabilities rate themselves as more proficient than those with disabilities.

 

Screen Reader Usage

Exclusively audioPrimarily audio, but alsovisualPrimarily visual, but alsoaudioExclusively visual11.1%75.6%

 

table with 3 columns and 5 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Exclusively audio

1,311

75.6%

Primarily audio, but also visual

193

11.1%

Primarily visual, but also audio

145

8.4%

Exclusively visual

85

4.9%

table end

 

Exclusively visual

 

table with 3 columns and 5 rows

Which of the following most accurately describes your screen reader usage?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

I exclusively rely on screen reader audio

1,311

75.6%

I primarily rely on screen reader audio, but also use visual content

193

11.1%

I primarily rely on visual content, but also use screen reader audio

145

8.4%

I exclusively rely on visual content

85

4.9%

table end

 

Nearly 25% of respondents rely at least partially on the visual components when using a screen reader. 83.4% of those with disabilities rely exclusively

on audio, compared to only 5.3% of those without disabilities (primarily testers). This is not entirely unexpected, but does indicate significant differences

in usage between those with disabilities and those without disabilities.

 

Only 1.3% of those with disabilities rely exclusively on the visual output—many of these reported having cognitive or learning disabilities. Users of ZoomText,

Narrator, and ChromeVox were much more likely to use the visual output than users of other screen readers.

 

Primary Screen Reader

JAWSNVDAVoiceOverZoomTextSystem Access orSA To GoWindow-EyesChromeVoxNarratorOther46.6%11.7%31.9%

 

table with 3 columns and 10 rows

Screen Reader

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

JAWS

811

46.6%

NVDA

555

31.9%

VoiceOver

204

11.7%

ZoomText

42

2.4%

System Access or SA To Go

30

1.7%

Window-Eyes

27

1.5%

ChromeVox

7

0.4%

Narrator

6

0.3%

Other

60

3.4%

table end

 

Other

 

table with 3 columns and 10 rows

Which of the following is your primary desktop/laptop screen reader?

Screen Reader

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

JAWS

811

46.6%

NVDA

555

31.9%

VoiceOver

204

11.7%

ZoomText

42

2.4%

System Access or SA To Go

30

1.7%

Window-Eyes

27

1.5%

ChromeVox

7

0.4%

Narrator

6

0.3%

Other

60

3.4%

table end

 

The following chart shows historical trends for primary screen reader usage.

 

Line chart of primary screen reader usage over time. In 2015, ZoomText and WindowEyes rise dramatically and JAWS falls. In 2017, ZoomText and WindowEyes

drop dramatically and JAWS, NVDA, and VoiceOver rise.

 

What happened in 2015? Essentially, the survey was distributed to a much broader audience, with many ZoomText and Window-Eyes users recruited to respond.

Window-Eyes was also offered freely with Microsoft Office before the 2015 survey, but has since been discontinued. A much broader analysis from 2015 is

available on the

WebAIM blog.

 

This doesn’t necessarily mean that the 2015 numbers were inaccurate. They certainly are accurate of respondents for that survey, which included more low=vision

users than any other survey. 39% of respondents in July 2015 reported low vision, compared to only 20.4% on this survey. This difference in respondent

demographics accounts for much or most of the decrease of respondents using ZoomText in 2017.

 

In short, there are three primary players—JAWS, NVDA, and VoiceOver. But we should not discount the continued impact of other screen readers, primarily

ZoomText among the broader low vision community.

 

For survey simplicity, other specific screen readers were not offered as response options. The survey comments indicate that SuperNova was very common

among “Other” screen readers.

 

Respondents with disabilities are more likely to use JAWS and less likely to use VoiceOver as their primary screen reader than respondents without disabilities.

10.4% of respondents with disabilities use VoiceOver compared to 22.6% of respondents without disabilities.

 

NVDA users reported higher levels of screen reader proficiency than users of other screen readers.

 

Screen Readers Commonly Used

Screen Readers Commonly Used (% of respondents)JAWSNVDAVoiceOverZoomTextSA or SA To GoWindow-EyesNarratorChromeVoxOther0%25%50%75%100%

 

table with 2 columns and 10 rows

Response

% of Respondents

JAWS

66

NVDA

64.9

VoiceOver

39.6

ZoomText

6

SA or SA To Go

4

Window-Eyes

4.7

Narrator

21.4

ChromeVox

5.1

Other

6.4

table end

 

Screen Readers Commonly Used (% of respondents)

 

table with 2 columns and 10 rows

Which of the following desktop/laptop screen readers do you commonly use?

Screen Reader

% of Respondents

JAWS

66.0%

NVDA

64.9%

VoiceOver

39.6%

ZoomText

6.0%

SA or SA To Go

4.0%

Window-Eyes

4.7%

Narrator

21.4%

ChromeVox

5.1%

Other

6.4%

table end

 

Chart of screen reader usage showing recent increases in usage of JAWS, NVDA, and VoiceOver, and significant decreases in Window-Eyes and ZoomText.

 

See the

commentary above

regarding the July 2015 values.

 

Usage of JAWS, NVDA, and VoiceOver are all up since 2015, with Window-Eyes and ZoomText significantly lower. Of note is that Narrator, which has been significantly

improved in Windows 10, was used as a primary screen reader by only 0.3% of respondents, but was commonly used by 21.4% of respondents.

 

68% of respondents use more than one desktop/laptop screen reader. This was up from 53% in July 2015. 36% use three or more, and 12% use four or more different

screen readers. VoiceOver users most commonly use additional screen readers, which is notable since the other screen readers run almost exclusively on

Windows.

 

Free/Low-cost Screen Readers

YesNoI Don’t Know11.7%10.5%77.8%

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

1,367

77.8%

No

184

10.5%

I Don’t Know

206

11.7%

table end

 

I Don’t Know

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Do you see free or low-cost screen readers (such as NVDA or VoiceOver) as currently being viable alternatives to commercial screen readers?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

1,367

77.8%

No

184

10.5%

I Don’t Know

206

11.7%

table end

 

The positive perception of free or low-cost screen readers continues to increase. Positive responses to this question were 48% in October 2009, 60% in

December 2010, 67% in May 2012, 74% in January 2014, and 78% now.

 

Only 66% of JAWS users answered “Yes” compared to an overwhelming 92% of VoiceOver users and 94% of NVDA users. Those that actually use free or low-cost

screen readers have a much better perception of them than those who do not use them. Respondents with “Advanced” screen reader proficiency were also more

favorable of free/low-cost screen readers.

 

Screen Reader Updates

YesNo11.5%88.5%

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

1,562

88.5%

No

203

11.5%

table end

 

No

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Has your primary screen reader been updated in the last year?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

1,562

88.5%

No

203

11.5%

table end

 

The vast majority (88.5%) of respondents indicated that their screen reader has been updated in the last year. This was 82.7% in 2014. 95.5% of NVDA users,

93.4% of VoiceOver users, and 85.9% of JAWS users updated in the last year.

 

Browsers

FirefoxIE11ChromeSafariIE6, 7, or 8IE 9 or 10Microsoft EdgeOther41%15.5%23.3%

 

table with 3 columns and 9 rows

Browser

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Firefox

719

41.0%

IE11

408

23.3%

Chrome

271

15.5%

Safari

184

10.5%

IE6, 7, or 8

71

4.1%

IE 9 or 10

70

4.0%

Microsoft Edge

8

0.5%

Other

22

1.3%

table end

 

Other

 

table with 3 columns and 9 rows

When using your primary screen reader, which browser do you use most often?

Browser

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Firefox

719

41.0%

Internet Explorer 11

408

23.3%

Chrome

271

15.5%

Safari

184

10.5%

Internet Explorer 6, 7, or 8

71

4.1%

Internet Explorer 9 or 10

70

4.0%

Microsoft Edge

8

0.5%

Other

22

1.3%

table end

 

Line chart of primary browser usage showing increases in Firefox and Chrome, decreases in Internet Explorer, and Safari usage generally stable since 2009.

 

For the first time, IE is no longer the most common browser among respondents. Internet Explorer (all versions) usage decreased to 31.4% from 53.5% in

July 2015, 58.7% in January 2014, and 67.5% in May 2012. Firefox was used by 41% (up from 24.2% in 2014) of respondents. 31.4% represents a significantly

higher IE usage than among the overall population (most statistics place it well below 10%). Usage of IE 6 through 10 was almost non-existent (1.6%) among

those without disabilities, but remains at 8.8% among those with disabilities.

 

Usage of Chrome more than doubled since July 2015, but was still well below usage by the overall population. Microsoft Edge usage was very low at .5%—notably

below the overall population.

 

Screen Reader / Browser Combinations

 

table with 3 columns and 10 rows

Most common screen reader and browser combinations

Screen Reader & Browser

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

JAWS with Internet Explorer

424

24.7%

NVDA with Firefox

405

23.6%

JAWS with Firefox

260

15.1%

VoiceOver with Safari

172

10.0%

JAWS with Chrome

112

6.5%

NVDA with Chrome

102

5.9%

NVDA with IE

40

2.3%

VoiceOver with Chrome

24

1.4%

Other combinations

180

10.5%

table end

 

There are many combinations in use, with JAWS with IE the most common, followed closely by NVDA with Firefox.

 

Operating System

WindowsiOSAppleAndroidLinuxOther14.2%72.8%

 

table with 3 columns and 7 rows

Operating System

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Windows

1,304

72.8%

iOS

254

14.2%

Apple

141

7.9%

Android

55

3.1%

Linux

25

1.4%

Other

13

.7%

table end

 

Other

 

table with 3 columns and 7 rows

Operating System

Operating System

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Windows

1,304

72.8%

iOS

254

14.2%

Apple

141

7.9%

Android

55

3.1%

Linux

25

1.4%

Other

13

.7%

table end

 

Operating system data above was detected from the system used to complete the survey. Respondents using iOS and Android nearly tripled since 2015. Respondents

without disabilities were almost 4 times more likely to use Apple than respondents with disabilities, whereas users with disabilities were more likely

to respond using iOS devices.

 

Braille Output

YesNo33.3%66.7%

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

516

33.3%

No

1,034

66.7%

table end

 

No

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Do you use braille output with your screen reader?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

516

33.3%

No

1,034

66.7%

table end

 

Because it would not generally be expected that users without disabilities would use Braille, they have been omitted from these data. Braille usage at

33.3% was up slightly from 27.7% in May 2012. 48.7% of VoiceOver users used Braille compared to a much lower 35.1% of JAWS users and 29.9% of NVDA users.

 

Mobile Screen Readers

Mobile Screen Reader Usage

YesNo12%88%

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

1,557

88.0%

No

213

12.0%

table end

 

No

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Do you use a screen reader on a mobile phone, mobile handheld device, or tablet?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Yes

1,557

88.0%

No

213

12.0%

table end

 

Chart of mobile screen reader adoption over time showing continual increases, with a small decrease in 2015.

 

The percentage of respondents using a mobile screen reader was notably up from 69.2% in July 2015, when the survey had broader distribution to a more diverse

and less technically proficient user base. 90.9% of respondents with disabilities indicate using a mobile screen reader, compared to only 65.3% of respondents

without disabilities. 94.3% of users with advanced screen reader proficiency indicate using a mobile screen reader compared to just 50.5% of those with

beginner proficiency.

 

Mobile Platforms

Apple iPhone, iPad, oriPod touchAndroidOther22%75.6%

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Apple iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch

1,146

75.6%

Android

334

22.0%

Other

35

2.3%

table end

 

Other

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Which of the following is your primary mobile/tablet platform?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Apple iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch

1,146

75.6%

Android

334

22.0%

Other

35

2.3%

table end

 

iOS devices continue to dominate the mobile screen reader market. Android usage increased slightly, though at a slower pace than previous years. Usage

of other platforms (Windows Phone, Chrome OS, Nokia, etc.) combined represent only 2.3% of usage.

 

Chart of mobile platform usage.

 

iOS device usage among screen reader users was notably higher than for the standard population, whereas Android usage was much, much lower. Those with

more advanced screen reader and internet proficiency were much more likely to use iOS over Android.

 

Mobile Screen Readers Used

Mobile Screen Readers Commonly Used (% of respondents)VoiceOverTalkBackVoice AssistantMobile AccessibilityNuance TalksMobileSpeakOther0%25%50%75%100%

 

table with 2 columns and 8 rows

Response

% of Respondents

VoiceOver

69

TalkBack

29.5

Voice Assistant

5.2

Mobile Accessibility

1.9

Nuance Talks

1.8

MobileSpeak

1.5

Other

3.2

table end

 

Mobile Screen Readers Commonly Used (% of respondents)

 

table with 2 columns and 8 rows

Which of the following mobile screen readers do you commonly use? (Choose all that apply)

Mobile Screen Reader

% of Respondents

VoiceOver

69.0%

TalkBack for Android

29.5%

Voice Assistant

5.2%

Mobile Accessibility for Android

1.9%

Nuance Talks

1.8%

MobileSpeak

1.5%

Other

3.2%

table end

 

Since July 2015, VoiceOver usage increased to 69% from 56.7%. TalkBack increased to 29.5% from 17.8% over the same 2.5 year period. All other mobile screen

readers saw decreased usage over that period. 20.9% of respondents commonly use multiple mobile screen readers.

 

Mobile vs. Desktop/Laptop Usage

Which do you use most often with a screen reader?Desktop/LaptopAbout the sameMobile/Tablet34.6%11.4%54%

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Desktop/Laptop

528

34.6%

About the same

825

54.0%

Mobile/Tablet

174

11.4%

table end

 

Mobile/Tablet

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Do you use a screen reader most often on a desktop/laptop computer or a mobile/tablet device?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Desktop/Laptop

528

34.6%

I use mobile/tablet and desktop/laptop screen readers about the same

825

54.0%

Mobile/Tablet device

174

11.4%

table end

 

54% of respondents use both devices about the same amount. Users are more likely to predominantly use desktop/laptop screen readers than they are mobile/tablet

screen readers. Respondents with disabilities are more likely to use a mobile screen reader than respondents without disabilities.

 

Mobile App vs Web Site Usage

Mobile AppWeb site46%54%

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Mobile App

779

46%

Web site

916

54%

table end

 

Web site

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

When performing common online tasks such as banking or shopping are you most likely to use a mobile app or the web site?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Mobile App

779

46%

Web site

916

54%

table end

 

Respondents with disabilities are more likely to use the mobile app than respondents that do not have disabilities. Those with advanced screen reader proficiency

were much more likely to use the mobile app than those with beginner proficiency.

 

Mobile Keyboard Usage

AlwaysOftenSometimesSeldomNever12%26.1%38.2%21.2%

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Always

39

3.9%

Often

181

11.8%

Sometimes

394

25.7%

Seldom

320

20.9%

Never

577

37.7%

table end

 

Never

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

When using a mobile screen reader how often do you use an external keyboard?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Always

39

3.9%

Often

181

11.8%

Sometimes

394

25.7%

Seldom

320

20.9%

Never

577

37.7%

table end

 

Mobile devices are often considered to be touch-only interfaces, yet many screen reader users use a keyboard when using their mobile devices.

 

Web Accessibility Progress

More AccessibleNo ChangeLess Accessible40.8%18.8%40.4%

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

More Accessible

711

40.8

No Change

703

40.4%

Less Accessible

327

18.8%

table end

 

Less Accessible

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Which of the following best describes your feelings regarding the accessibility of web content over the previous year?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Web content has become more accessible

711

40.8%

Web content accessibility has not changed

703

40.4%

Web content has become less accessible

327

18.8%

table end

 

Respondents have a slightly more positive perception of the state of web accessibility now than they did in 2015. Respondents without disabilities tend

to be more positive about recent progress (51.7% thought it has become more accessible) than those with disabilities (39.6% thought it has become more

accessible).

 

Impacts on Accessibility

Which would have a bigger impact on accessibility?Better (more accessible)web sitesBetter assistivetechnology14.7%85.3%

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Better (more accessible) web sites

1,490

85.3

Better assistive technology

257

14.7%

table end

 

technology

 

table with 3 columns and 3 rows

Which of the following do you think would have a bigger impact on improvements to web accessibility?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Better (more accessible) web sites

1490

85.3%

Better assistive technology

257

14.7%

table end

 

Over time, more respondents have answered “better web sites” to this question—68.6% of respondents in October 2009, 75.8% in December 2010, 81.3% in January

2014, and now 85.3% on this survey. This change perhaps reflects improvements to assistive technology. It certainly indicates that users expect site authors

to address accessibility issues.

 

Social Media Accessibility

Very AccessibleSomewhat AccessibleSomewhat InaccessibleVery InaccessibleI Don’t Know14.9%11.3%14.5%54.3%

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Very Accessible

253

14.9%

Somewhat Accessible

921

54.3%

Somewhat Inaccessible

246

14.5%

Very Inaccessible

83

4.9%

I Don’t Know

192

11.3%

table end

 

I Don’t Know

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

In general, how accessible are social media web sites to you?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Very Accessible

253

14.9%

Somewhat Accessible

921

54.3%

Somewhat Inaccessible

246

14.5%

Very Inaccessible

83

4.9%

I Don’t Know

192

11.3%

table end

 

Compared to responses from previous surveys, respondents are increasingly positive about the accessibility of social media sites – 69.2% find them very

or somewhat accessible compared to 55.2% in 2012 and 60.3% in 2015. 73.1% of respondents with advanced screen reader proficiency rate social media sites

as very or somewhat accessible, compared to only 62.8% of respondents with beginner proficiency.

 

Landmarks/Regions

Whenever they’reavailableOftenSometimesSeldomNever18%12.5%19.4%21.3%28.8%

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Whenever they’re available

307

18.0%

Often

213

12.5%

Sometimes

491

28.8%

Seldom

364

21.3%

Never

332

19.4%

table end

 

Never

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

How often do you navigate by landmarks/regions in your screen reader?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Whenever they’re available

307

18.0%

Often

213

12.5%

Sometimes

491

28.8%

Seldom

364

21.3%

Never

332

19.4%

table end

 

The frequent use of landmarks and regions has continually decreased from 43.8% in January 2014, to 38.6% in July 2015, to 30.5% on this survey. It’s difficult

to know the reasons for this. It could be due to infrequent or improper usage of landmarks/regions in pages. Or perhaps because other mechanisms are continually

better. 45.4% of JAWS users reported always or often using landmarks in July 2015 compared to only 28.5% now just 2.5 years later.

 

Finding Information

Pie chart of methods for finding information on a lengthy web pageNavigate HeadingsUse “Find”Navigate LinksNavigate Landmarks/RegionsRead the page14.4%67.5%

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Navigate Headings

1,180

67.5%

Use “Find”

252

14.4%

Navigate Links

118

6.8%

Navigate Landmarks/Regions

69

3.9%

Read the page

128

7.3%

table end

 

Read the page

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

When trying to find information on a lengthy web page, which of the following are you most likely to do first?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Navigate through the headings on the page

1180

67.5%

Use the “Find” feature

252

14.4%

Navigate through the links of the page

118

6.8%

Navigate through the landmarks/regions of the page

69

3.9%

Read through the page

128

7.3%

table end

 

While reliance on headings as the predominant mechanism for finding page information had notably increased between 2008 and 2014, responses to this question

are largely unchanged since

2014.

While 30.5% of respondents indicate that they always or often use landmarks when they are present, only 3.9% use this method for finding information on

a lengthy web page. Those with advanced screen reader proficiency are much more likely to use headings (73% use headings) than those with beginner proficiency

(42% use headings) who are more likely to read through the page.

 

Heading Structures

Heading structure preferencesSite name in <h1>Document title in <h1>Two <h1>s33.3%60%

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Site name in <h1>

95

6.6%

Document title in <h1>

858

60.0%

Two <h1>s

476

33.3%

table end

 

Two <h1>s

 

table with 3 columns and 4 rows

Which of the following page heading structures is easiest for you?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

One first level heading that contains the site name

95

6.6%

One first level heading that contains the document title

858

60.0%

Two first level headings, one for the site name and one for the document title

476

33.3%

table end

 

Preference for a single <h1> that presents the document title has significantly increased from 37.1% in 2010 to 60% in 2017. A single <h1> for the site

name was by far the least desired.

 

“Skip” Links

Skip link usageWhenever they’reavailableOftenSometimesSeldomNever15.8%16.4%18.4%21.6%27.8%

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Whenever they’re available

273

15.8%

Often

283

16.4%

Sometimes

480

27.8%

Seldom

374

21.6%

Never

319

18.4%

table end

 

Never

 

table with 3 columns and 6 rows

When a “skip to main content” or “skip navigation” link is available on a page, how often do you use it?

Response

# of Respondents

% of Respondents

Whenever they’re available

273

15.8%

Often

283

16.4%

Sometimes

480

27.8%

Seldom

374

21.6%

Never

319

18.4%

table end

 

When compared to July 2015, the frequent usage of “skip” links has decreased from 37.8% to 30.2%. 54.9% of respondents without disabilities always or often

use “skip” links compared to only 29.6% of respondents with disabilities. This represents a very significant disparity in usage.

 

It is important to note that while usage has decreased among screen reader users, “skip” links still provide notable benefit for other keyboard users.

 

Problematic Items

 

The survey asked respondents to select their most, second most, and third most problematic items from a list. In giving each selected item a weighting,

the following chart shows the overall rating of difficulty and frustration for each item.

 

Most Problematic ItemsCAPTCHAUnexpected screen changesAmbiguous links/buttonsFlash contentLack of keyboard accessibilityComplex/difficult formsMissing/improper

alt textMissing/improper headingsToo many linksComplex data tablesInaccessible/missing searchMissing “skip” link

 

table with 2 columns and 13 rows

Response

Ranking

CAPTCHA

2,633

Unexpected screen changes

1,516

Ambiguous links/buttons

1,401

Flash content

1,287

Lack of keyboard accessibility

1,076

Complex/difficult forms

623

Missing/improper alt text

585

Missing/improper headings

448

Too many links

358

Complex data tables

228

Inaccessible/missing search

156

Missing “skip” link

105

table end

 

Most Problematic Items

 

In order, the most problematic items are:

 

list of 12 items

  1. CAPTCHA – images presenting text used to verify that you are a human user
  2. Screens or parts of screens that change unexpectedly
  3. Links or buttons that do not make sense
  4. The presence of inaccessible Flash content
  5. Lack of keyboard accessibility
  6. Complex or difficult forms
  7. Images with missing or improper descriptions (alt text)
  8. Missing or improper headings
  9. Too many links or navigation items
  10. Complex data tables
  11. Inaccessible or missing search functionality
  12. Lack of “skip to main content” or “skip navigation” links

list end

 

CAPTCHA remains the most (by a notable margin) problematic item indicated by respondents. The order and indicated difficulty for the items in this list are largely unchanged over the last 8 years, with one notable exception—”Screens or parts of screens that change unexpectedly”. This item has moved from 7th most problematic in 2009 to 5th most problematic in 2012 to 2nd most problematic in 2017. This is likely a result of more complex and dynamic web applications.

 

Respondents with disabilities were nearly twice as likely to rank CAPTCHA and unexpected screen changes as problematic items than respondents without disabilities, who generally indicated that keyboard and forms accessibility were much more problematic than their peers with disabilities. 10.9% of respondents with disabilities rated keyboard accessibility as their single most problematic item, compared to 39.6% of respondents without disabilities. This suggests some notable disparities in perception of difficulties between these two groups.

article end

 

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Accessibility Article: Ninety-six percent of visually impaired adults watch TV on a regular basis, according to Comcast and the American Foundation for the Blind

Ninety-six percent of visually impaired adults watch TV on a regular basis, according to Comcast and the American Foundation for the Blind

 

Ashley Boucher

SFGate, February 17, 2018

 

The majority of people with visual disabilities watch four or more hours of television per day, which is almost as much as the general public, a new survey by Comcast and the American Foundation for the Blind found.

 

That’s compared to a Nielsen study from 2016 that found the average person watched about five hours of television per day.

 

“It’s a myth to think that you can’t enjoy television just because you have a visual disability,” said Tom Wlodkowski, Vice President of Accessibility for Comcast, who was born blind.

 

The survey, which found that 96 percent of visually impaired adults watch television on a regular basis, was conducted by Global Strategy Group and surveyed 626 visually impaired adults, including 277 adults with “no functional vision” between Oct. 9 and Nov. 27, 2017.

 

The results were weighted to correspond to national data about the visually impaired population, and designed to be compatible with screen readers and screen magnifiers.

 

Additionally, the survey found that  81 percent watch more than an hour per day and 55 percent watch four or more hours per day.

 

But it’s not always easy for the visually impaired to enjoy their favorite shows: of those surveyed, 65 percent encountered problems with looking up what’s on TV, and 53 percent experienced difficulty in following along with key visual elements. Less than half surveyed were aware of assistive technologies like video description and talking TV guides.

 

https://www.sfgate.com/…/Study-Blind-People-Watch-TV-About-as-Much-as-126179

 

Guest Post: Company seeking screen reader users for useability study

Company seeking screen reader users for useability study

 

For info, please send an email to Andrea Purton at:

andrea.purton@thoughtexchange.com

 

I work as the User Experience Researcher for a startup software company based in BC called ThoughtExchange (www.thoughtexchange.com). Our company is working to improve accessibility for our web app and our website. We provide a tool that allows groups of people to engage in meaningful conversation around a topic chosen by a leader, and so it is important to us to lower barriers to engage in that conversation. Our product is dynamic and interactive, so one major challenge is how to modify for accessibility without compromising the interactive experience.

Participants would be compensated for their time ($60/hr, $30/half hr), and can be interviewed from their home or office, as long as they have access to a computer and the internet. Typically, interviews are half an hour long, but can be up to an hour in special cases. Participants are usually asked to navigate through a website or app and asked questions about their experience as they go.

We are just beginning to modify our web app, but at this stage, I would like to interview (online) one or more people who use screen readers.

 

 

Tech Advertisement: The ScanJig, Helping the Blind, Visually Impaired and those with Fine Motor Difficulties Accurate Text Recognition With The First Scan

Assistive Technology
Helping the Blind, Visually Impaired and those with Fine Motor Difficulties
Accurate Text Recognition With The First Scan

The ScanJig is a simple device that can improve functional capacities of individuals who are visually impaired, blind or have fine motor difficulties .
• Versatile – holds smart phones or tablets in the correct position for precisely aligned, focused images. Scan documents, business cards, checks and books. Get accurate text-to-speech conversion. Helps those with motor difficulties use apps.
• Enhance App Performance – OCR apps (e.g., KNFB Reader), Education apps (e.g., SnapType)
• Tactile – guided positioning of both the device and document. Get correct alignment and field of view on the first scan.
• Portable – folds down flat and snaps shut to easily fit in a backpack or carry bag.
• Simple to Use – just open the ScanJig, place your phone, and start scanning in seconds. Work from the seated position facing the touch screen.
• Smart Glasses – remove the device holder and use just the document stand.
• Durable – molded plastic parts for stable, precise imaging and firm support for larger devices.
• Open Design – angled to capture more light and avoid shadows.
Optional accessories:
Support Bracket – for book scanning with the KNFB Reader app.
Extended Shelf – for iPad users

HOW TO ORDER

We accept Purchase Orders and Credit Cards

800-390-1125

For more information email
Info@scanjig.com

Copyright © 2016 Spectrum Business Solutions, All rights reserved.

Accessible Devices: Philips offers a line of accessible TV and Video Players for blind and low vision users.

Taken from a CoolBlindTech article:

The entire line of 2017 Philips brand televisions and video players now offers Enhanced Accessibility to allow blind and visually impaired users to control the devices’ functions. Adding Enhanced Accessibility to products entails the addition of voice guide descriptive menus, easy to read user interface, guide dots on remote controls, easy access to closed captioning/subtitles and secondary audio, easy access to support, and an easy way to identify these products with the help of an Enhanced Accessibility logo.

Remote controls on the affected Philips products feature guide dots so that users can easily control key functions, such as power on/off, volume adjustment and mute, channel selection, playback functions, input selection, and other important functions.

Philips groups these new capabilities under its Enhanced Accessibility feature set, which also includes an easy-to-read and navigate user interface, large format support information, and closed captioning, a long-mandated requirement for assisting the hearing impaired.

The user interface voice guide and other features are new requirements established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) as part of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA). The new rules mandate that certain built-in functions in TVs, Blu-ray players, and DVD players, among other consumer electronics products, be usable by individuals who are blind or visually impaired. The deadline for meeting the new requirements was December 20, 2016.

The new rules mandate that any key functions available only via an on-screen menu must offer user interface voice guides, with the menu options spoken and user selections audibly confirmed.

“The FCC regulations on Enhanced Accessibility allow us to design our products so they can be enjoyed by more consumers,” said Karl Bearnarth, executive vice president, sales and marketing, P&F USA, Inc., the exclusive North American licensee for Philips consumer televisions and home video products.

“We took this initiative very seriously and were determined to ensure that our entire line of TVs and video players, including basic DVD players, met the requirements and that they were as intuitive as possible to use for those who are visually impaired.”

P&F USA, Inc. is a subsidiary of Funai Electric Co., LTD and is the exclusive licensee for Philips consumer televisions and home video products in North America.

Funai Electric Co., Ltd., established in 1961, is headquartered in Osaka, Japan and is a major original equipment manufacturer supplier for appliance, consumer electronics, computer, and computer peripheral companies.

Guest Post: Shaw Communications has recently released a “Usable by the blind” TV Service called, BlueSky TV

BlueSky TV by Shaw Communications

Here is what I learned about the base technology that Shaw has imported into Canada and are now calling BlueSky TV. It’s originally a ComCast system called X1 and is licensed by Shaw exclusively in Western Canada and Rogers in Eastern Canada for the next 3 years.

I wouldn’t call it completely accessible, however thanks to the Voice Guidance it is, for the most part, usable by blind folks. This is a service designed for and promoted to the sighted TV viewer, so not necessarily built with blind accessibility in mind.

Check out these videos.

How to use X1 Voice Guidance Talking Guide:

How to learn the X1 Remote Control Layout:

How to Program your X1 Remote Control to your TV and Audio Device:
(Sighted assistance may be needed)

Graphical Layout of the X1 Remote Control:
(Not accessible to blind) computer users)

For the ComCast Support Page in the USA:

Thx, Albert Ruel, GTT Coordinator
The Canadian Council of the Blind
Email: GTTWest@CCBNational.net
Mobile: 250-240-2343

Guest Post: How to Re-Arrange App Icons on your iOS 10 Device

Dear GTT Members,

Thanks goes out to GTT Edmonton member, Owais, who has written a tutorial on arranging iOS app icons that he would like to share with us. See his email below.

Subject: Arranging Apps In Ios 10

Hello Gtt. I have prepared a Tutorial that demonstrates how to Arrange Applications in iOS 10 since Apple has made it very easy to do this. In this tutorial I have prepared all the steps to arrange apps with a Braille Display and without a Braille Display. I hope this helps everyone.

Arranging Apps In iOS 10 With A Braille Display:
Note: This tutorial assumes that the user is already connected to a Braille Display.
Step 1. First locate on your Home Screen of the iOS Device to an app. It will help if your at the very top of the Home Screen.
Step 2. Press Spacebar and Dot 6 to go to your options of your current Rotor Settings. Try to find Arrange Apps.
Step 3. Click or Double-Tap on it with your Rotor Keys. The Braille Display and Voiceover will announce Arranging Apps.
Step 4. Scroll up or down once and then back to the app you were previously on. You will then read the App’s name and the word “Editting” beside it.
Step 5. Be careful here because Double-Tapping on this may Delete the App however you will get an Alert Pop-Up.
Step 6. Locate to the app that you wish to move and swipe up by pressing Spacebar and Dot 3. Look for Move the specific app for example Messages.
When you swipe up your Ios Device should say Move Messages.
Step 7. Double-Tap and a Pop-Up should be seen spoken to choose a Destination.
Step 8. Now anywhere on your phone locate to an app on your phone that you would like the currently moved app to be with.
Step 9. When you have found that app swipe up by pressing Spacebar and Dot 3 again. You will see place Message in this case before or after or the current app. Another option you will have is to Create a folder with the following 2 apps. Select the option you want and press the either of Rotor keys to Double-Tap. Your app will then be mrved.
Step 10. To end the Editting Mode press the Home Button or do the same steps if you wish to mrve other apps.
Step 11. When you create folder with several apps the iPhone may name it randomly according to the Category of apps they fit in. You may change the App’s name by going into the Folder and putting your Ios device in Editting as explained above as you want to move an app.
Step 12. Instead of mrving apps go to the very top of the folder. You will see Clear Text and when your Ios Device has focused the Braille Display on the Folder’s Title, a Pop-Up comes saying “Double-Tap to edit text field.”
Click on it using the Braille Display Rotor keys and simply enter the Title you wish to give this Folder. Press Spacebar and E when your done.
Step 13. End your Editting as described above.
Note: When you have completed formatting your Ios Device’s Layout place your Rotor Setting option to Activate Default since if it’s focused on Arrange Apps, your phone will go back into Editting Mode as soon as you Double-Tap on the app to use it or when you press Enter.

Arranging Apps Without A Braille Display:
Step 1. Swipe Up or Down on your Ios Device’s screen and Double-Tap on Arrange Apps. Swipe to the right/left and then back to your current app you would like to move and Voiceover will announce for example Messages Editting.

Step 2. Be careful here and don’t Double-Tap since that may lead you to Deleting your app. Please note that if you click on this button here as well Voiceogher will alert you telling you that your about to delete an app.
Step 3. Swipe up to find move Messages for example and Double-Tap on it.
Voiceogher should announce Choose A destination.
Step 4. Locate to the app you wish to move the current app before or after.
Step 5. Swipe up or down and you will get options to place Messages after or before or even create a folder with the following 2 apps. Select the one you want.
Step 6. Now your app has been moved and your done. Press the Home Button if your done formatting your Screen Layout or follow the same steps to mrche your other apps.
Step 7. When your folder in a folder and wish to change the folder’s name in which your apps are located do the follow things.
Step 8. Proceed to the very top of the folder and put your Ios Device back into Editting Mode.
Step 9. You will hear Voiceover announce the folder current name in addiy to a Pop-Up saying Double-Tap to edit the Text Field.
Step 10. Double-Tap and use your Touch Screen to enter the Title you wish to give your folder.
Step 11. Double-Tap on done and your all done.
Note: Make sure your screen is focused on Activate Default instead of Arrange Apps when your done since this will do the same thing as described in the note with the Braille Display above.

Best Regards,
Owais

Please send your questions and comments to,
GTT.Edmonton@Gmail.com

Guest Post: Dolphin Releases the EasyReader App for iOS, a new Direct To Player audio book reading app

June 9, 2017

Dear GTT Members,

Earlier this week Dolphin released their latest app that will allow CELA patrons to access Daisy books directly into the app. Below are two helpful links, the first will take you to the Dolphin Web Site where you can access a YouTube video and other sources of information about the Dolphin EasyReader App, and the second one will take you to the App Store where you can download the app into your iDevice for free.

Dolphin EasyReader Direct to Player App for iOS:

Where to purchase EasyReader from the iOS App Store:

Once you have downloaded and installed the app, you may log in to your CELA account by typing the following in front of your six digit CELA ID Number:

CELA_

Follow that with your password in the password field and you should be able to try out this great new app.

Thx, Albert Ruel, GTT Coordinator
The Canadian Council of the Blind
Email: GTTWest@CCBNational.net
Mobile: 250-240-2343

For a Cool Blind Tech article on this app check this link:

Tutorial Resource: How To Connect a Refreshable Braille Display to iDevices

Hello GTT members across Canada:

For those of you who are blind and may be thinking of connecting an electronic braille display to your iPhone or iPad the following are tips from one of our GTT Edmonton student members, Owais Patel.

Thanks to Owais for sharing his experience.

 

Hi Gerry.

Here are the important things that I would like you to share with all of our Gtt members regarding using a Braille Display with your iOS device. Finally I have completed them now. Thanks for sharing them for me.

 

Note: These instructions apply to the iPhone but for most of the part are same for all iOS devices and the following instructions apply to the Braille Sense U2, however make sure with the Tech Team of your Braille Display that these instructions also apply to you. Most likely they should be the same.

 

How To Connect a Braille Display to iDevices:

  1. Locate to Utilities and Terminal For Screen Reader on the Braille Sense and select Bluetooth Serial Port, press F1 and then F4 which will put you in a mode where all of your display will be blank.
    1. Now on the phone locate to Settings, General, Accessibility, VoiceOver and then Braille. Find the Heading labeled Choose A Braille Display and scroll down once. Here your Braille Display’s name should appear. Double-tap and you will be placed in the Text field of entering a 4 Digit Pin Code. If you want to remember it easily try to keep one number repeated 4 ts. Quickly
  2. do this and click on Pair Button. Now on your Braille display you will have a Pop-up saying Pin Code. Here enter the code which you entered on the phone quickly and press enter. You should be now connected.

 

Keystrokes To Use With The Braille Display:

  1. When you are connected to a Braille Display you don’t need to touch the screen of your phone and everything becomes even faster but everything you do also changes.
  2. In the situation of a Braille Sense your Home Button is the Function Key 2.
  3. To scroll up and down you may use the Scroll keys on the sides of the U2/.play. If these keys don’t appear there, use Space bar and Dot Dot 1 to go up or to the previous item and Space bar and Dot 4 to go Down or to the next item.
  4. Press Space bar and Dots 1 2 4 5 to toggle between the Braille codes in which the stuff from your iPhone is displayed on your Braille Display.
  5. Although this is different when you write because this code doesn’t apply to the Output of the phone onto your Braille Display.
  6. To manage this code press Space Bar and Dots 2 3 and 6. To swipe up poess space and dot 3 and to swipe down press space and Dot 6.
  7. To Delete something in a Text Field press Space and D.
  8. To write something from the Writing field of the Braille Sense into the real iPhone field press Space and E. For example when you trying something in search field and you you write “Weather Today”
  9. to paste this into the Search field press space and E. This can also be used to insert a blank line in a document. It works like the enter key on your Qwerty keyboard.
  10. To go to the very top of the screen press space and Dots 1, 2 and 3. To go to the very bottom of the screen press Space and dots 4, 5 and 6.
  11. To Double-Tap using the Braille Sense use the Cursor Keys.
  12. To open the help menu to see what each keystroke does press Space and K, or a 4 finger Double-Tap. When you’re here you can do any keystroke to see what each does for you. Don’t worry because Voiceover will speak each keystroke’s action or the the spoken words will pop up text on the display. Although the real keystroke in this section will perform its action.
  13. Once you would like to close this don’t press space bar and K, instead you will have to do the 4 Finger Double Tap on the iPhone screen.
  14. To activate Rotor options press Space bar and Dots 5:6 to go forwards and Space bar and dots 2 and 3 to go back. Then swipe up and down to select and deselect text.
  15. Press Space bar and S to see all of your bars Battery Remaining Etc.
  16. When your done with this do the keystroke to go to the top of the screen and this will take you back to the home screen or where you were before you activated this Status Bar Screen.
  17. To go out of a Window on your Phone or go back to something press space and letter B.

 

Voiceover Braille Display Short Forms:

When you just use Voiceover to use the phone you will not notice the short forms which Voiceover uses to label things in several places on the iPhone, because Voiceover just speaks the original phrase or words directly.

  • Firstly the short form used for Heading is Hd. The short form of Button is B.T.N. These are the main ones only. Hope they help.

 

Important Notices:

  1. There are several places on iOS devices where Pop-ups happen. As a result if your a slow reader you may not be able to read what was on your screen before the pop-up happened. A tip for this is to wait for the pop-up to disappear and then read without moving up or down what’s on the Braille Display. To refer back to the Pop-up scroll down-up and go back to where the pop-up appeared.
  2. You can adjust all the Braille Settings based on your opinion in the Settings and this will really help.
  3. Sometimes the doesn’t connect to the Braille Displays we use. It’s a great idea to reset both devices and then retry. If it still doesn’t work try turning your Bluetooth on your iPhone off and retry. Hopefully this will help.
  4. Sometimes when entering a password or a Username it may be a problem to enter it because of the Braille Code translation. However if this happens. Use your screen to type for this time only and you should be all right.
  5. It’s a great idea to turn the Speech Off when you’re using a Braille Display with your Ios device because the speech slows everything down. For example if you on an app title, Voiceover will still speak the title even though your at the next app on your Braille Display.
  6. Whenever you’re in any Text Field it is a great idea to do the keystroke Space bar and Dots 2, 3 and 6. It’s a great idea because it might mess up your writing in my experience.

 

Contact Info:

Please don’t hesitate to reach out to me if you face any problems. I will try my very best to help. My email address is written below.

Email:

owaisipatel@gmail.com

Also using a Braille Display with all of the MacBooks is extremely accessible as well. To get all the keystrokes regarding the use of Braille Displays with the Mac please contact Kim the Gtt Coordinator in Ottawa.

Email:

gttprogram@gmail.com

 

Kind Regards,

Owais

 

 

 

 

Step-By-Step Resource: How to Rip CDs in Windows 10

How to Rip CDs in Windows 10

 

Related Book

Windows 10 For Dummies

 

By Andy Rathbone.

 

In a process known as ripping, Windows Media Player in Windows 10 can copy your CDs to your PC as MP3 files, the industry standard for digital music.

But until you tell the player that you want MP3 files, it creates WMA files

– a format that won’t play on iPads, most smartphones, nor many other music players.

 

To make Windows Media Player create songs with the more versatile MP3 format instead of WMA, click the Organize button in the top-left corner, choose Options, and click the Rip Music tab. Choose

MP3 instead of WMA from the Format drop-down menu and nudge the audio quality over a tad from 128 to 256 or even 320 for better sound.

 

To copy CDs to your PC’s hard drive, follow these instructions:

 

Open Windows Media Player, insert a music CD, and click the Rip CD button.

 

You may need to push a button on the front or side of your computer’s disc drive to make the tray eject.

 

Windows Media Player connects to the Internet; identifies your CD; and fills in the album’s name, artist, and song titles. Then the program begins copying the CD’s songs to your PC and listing their titles in the Windows Media Player Library.

You’re through.

 

If Windows Media Player can’t find the songs’ titles automatically, however, move ahead to Step 2.

Right-click the first track and choose Find Album Info, if necessary.

 

If Windows Media Player comes up empty-handed, right-click the first track and choose Find Album Info.

 

If you’re connected to the Internet, type the album’s name into the Search box and then click Search. If the Search box finds your album, click its name, choose Next, and click Finish.

 

If you’re not connected to the Internet, or if the Search box comes up empty, right-click the first song, click Edit, and manually fill in the song title.

Repeat for the other titles, as well as the album, artist, genre, and year tags.

 

Here are some tips for ripping CDs to your computer:

 

Normally Windows Media Player copies every song on the CD. To leave Tiny Tim

 

off your ukulele music compilation, however, remove the check mark from Tiny Tim’s name. If Windows Media Player has already copied the song to your PC, feel free to delete it from within Windows Media Player. Click the Library button, right-click the song sung by the offending yodeler, and choose Delete.

 

Windows Media Player automatically places your ripped CDs into your Music folder. You can also find your newly ripped music there as well as in the Windows Media Player Library.

 

end of article.